Management & Development Center


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Develop or validate the Business Plan



1. Comprehensive Business Planning

  • How did the organization perform the past year overall in terms of return on investment, market share, and profitability?


2. Action Plans

  • Specify steps or actions required to attain an objective.

  • Designate who will be held accountable for seeing the each step or action is completed.

  • Define when these steps or actions will be carried out.

  • Define resources needed to be allocated in order to carry out the required steps or actions.

  • Define feedback mechanisms needed to monitor progress within each action step.

Project Title



Action steps




Feedback Mechanism









3. Operational Plans

3.1 Operational Plan Content

  1. Executive Summary

  2. Business Unit Description

  3. Product and Services

  4. Operational Analysis: Issues and Conclusions

  5. Key Result Areas & Indicators of Performance

  6. Operational Objectives

  7. Action Plans

  8. Budgets

  9. Plan Implementation and Review Schedule Appendices

3.2 Operational Planning Framework

  • Issue Analysis

  • Key Result Areas

  • Performance Indicators

  • Objectives

  • Budgets

  • Action Plans

3.3 Operational Objectives

  • Statements of measurable results to be accomplished within the time frame of the operational plan.

  • Standards of performance related to financial and operating results that can be tracked on a regular basis.

3.4 Operational Objectives

  • Determine the level of financial resources required to achieve the operational plan’s objectives.

  • Allocate available financial resources to ensure their optimum use in achieving the plan’s objectives.

  • Control the use of available resources to ensure the achievement of plan objectives

3.5 Budgeting Problems

  • Budgets can grow to be so complex that they become expensive, cumbersome, and even meaningless

  • Budget objectives may come to supersede enterprise objectives—budgets should be considered a tool, not an end in themselves. Enterprise goals should supersede business unit plans

  • Budgets may contribute to inefficiencies by continuing initial expenditures without proper evaluation

  • Budgets as a pressure device defeat their basic purpose


4. Results Management

  • Control Systems

  • Management Reports

  • Organizational results

  • Individual Results

  • Corrective Action

  • Reward System

4.1 Integrated Planning Process


5. Contingency Planning

  • When managing risks, there are several activities that may occur:

    • Realization: noticing that the risk occurs

    • Identification: spotting the risk coming

    • Avoidance: eliminating the risk

    • Reduction: acting to reduce the risk

    • Contingency planning: preparing for the worst

  • Contingency planning basically means creating a process and putting it on the shelf such that when the risk occurs, you are as prepared as possible.

  • Contingency planning is the determination of alternative courses of action to be taken if an intended plan is unexpectedly disrupted or rendered inappropriate. They help managers cope with uncertainty and change.

  • Contingency actions may include:

    • Ensuring that additional resources can be called on and are available. This includes internal and external people, equipment, etc.

    • Preparation of communications and PR about the situation.

    • Training people to handle the undesirable situation.

    • Setting up identification measures so you have reasonable warning of the problem situation's imminent arrival.

    • Setting up a contingency organization with roles and responsibilities that will last for the duration of the emergency.