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1. Definitions


TQM is a set of systematic activities carried out by the entire organization to effectively and efficiently achieve company objectives so as to provide products and services with a level of quality that satisfies customers, at the appropriate time and price.

(The Deming Prize Committee of the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers)

In Japanese, TQM comprises of four process steps, namely:

  1. KaizenFocuses on Continuous Process Improvement, to make processes visible, repeatable and measureable.

  2. Atarimae HinshitsuFocuses on intangible effects on processes and ways to optimize and reduce their effects.

  3. Kansei Examining the way the user applies the product leads to improvement in the product itself.

  4. Miryokuteki HinshisuBroadens management concern beyond the immediate product.

2. Origins

  • "Total Quality Management was developed in the mid 1940s by Dr. W. Edwards Deming, who at the time was an advisor in sampling at the Bureau of Census and later became a professor of statistics at the New York University Graduate School of Business Administration."

  • In 1984, the United States Department of the Navy Personnel Research and Development Center began researching the use of:

    • Statistical process control (SPC), Ishikawa's Total Quality Control (TQC) and quality management methods for potential benefit in making performance improvements

    • The quality management approaches advocated by Philip B. Crosby, W. Edwards Deming, and Joseph Juran.

  • The result was an approach that combined SPC principles with the philosophy of W. Edwards Deming.

  • This approach was first tested at the North Island Naval Aviation Depot.